Cardiovascular System

Learn the anatomy of the circulatory system, the physiology of the heart, its regulation of blood flow and the pathology associated with this vital organ.
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1. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System

Understand the structure of the heart and be able to recall the major arteries and veins of the body.

2. The Cardiac Cycle

Be able to describe the phases of the cardiac cycle, recall the stages of the conduction system and read Wiggers diagram.

3. Pulses and Pressures

Understand the types of flow in blood vessels, the different types of pulses, the importance of the JVP and the importance of mean arterial blood pressure and how to calculate it.

4. Control of Cardiac Output

Be able to describe the factors that affect cardiac output, use the Frank-Starling law to explain changes in cardiac output and understand the influence of the autonomic nervous system on the cardiovascular system.

5. Cardiac Conduction and Contraction

Be able to describe the process of cardiac muscle contraction, to draw and explain the graphs for the SA node and ventricular action potentials, and to understand how these can change in pathology and physiology.

6. Embryology of the CVS

Understand how the cardiovascular system develops in utero.

7. Congenital Heart Defects

Be able to apply understanding of the anatomy and development of the cardiovascular system, to explain how congenital heart defects arise, explain why patients with congenital heart defects present with certain symptoms and understand why some babies with congenital heart defects can present with central cyanosis, and some don’t.

8. Hypertension

Be able to name some causes of hypertension, describe how blood pressure is controlled over the short and long term and name and describe the different ways that blood pressure is controlled in the long term.

9. Electrocardiograms

Be able to name what each lead on an ECG looks at and which artery is associated with it, describe how depolarisation and repolarisation appear on an ECG, calculate the heart rate using an ECG, describe how the conduction system appears on an ECG, name and describe the intervals seen on an ECG and define what a sinus rhythm is.

10. Electrocardiogram Pathology

Be able to name some common cardiovascular conditions visible on an ECG and describe some common cardiovascular conditions and how they appear on an ECG.

11. Cardiovascular Drugs

Be able to name the different types of cardiac drugs and have an idea of how they treat the cardiac disease, name the different classes of anti-arrhythmic drugs and describe how they function, be able to name the types of drugs used in the treatment of hypertension and be able to describe a bit about each and be able to describe the drugs used in the treatment of angina and heart failure.

12. Murmurs

Be able to name some murmurs caused by defective heart valves, be able to describe the sounds heard when listening to defective heart valves and know where to auscultate to hear different heart sounds.

13. Special Circulations

Be able to explain the adaptations of the different circulations in the body and relate these adaptations to the function of the organ.

14. Heart Failure

Be able to list some causes of heart failure, explain the different classifications of heart failure and understand the pathophysiology of heart failure, and relate this to treatments.

15. Artery and Vein Disease

Be able to explain pathology associated with arteries and veins and give associated complications of these.

16. Acute Coronary Syndromes

Be able to name the acute coronary syndromes, describe why acute coronary syndromes occur, name some causes of chest pain, differentiate between the causes of chest pain and differentiate between the types of myocardial infarction and myocardial ischaemia.

17. Haemodynamic Shock

Understand the principles of shock, be able to explain the four main causes of shock, name some causes of shock and describe decompensation.

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