Cell Physiology and Biology
Understand the structure of an amino acid and the different states an amino acid can exist in, the formation of a polypeptide, the various structures of a polypeptide, how the structure of the protein can affect its function and how misfolding of a protein can affect its role within the human body.
Understand the structure and function of myoglobin and haemoglobin, draw comparisons between the haem proteins myoglobin and haemoglobin, describe and explain how haemoglobin’s affinity for oxygen can be changed by molecules or changes in the surroundings, be able to explain how foetal haemoglobin differs from adult haemoglobin and why this is important in the development of a foetus and understand how a mutation in the globin chain genes for haemoglobin can lead to diseases such as thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia.
Be able to understand the important role enzymes play in reactions, the features of enzymes that allow them to carry out their function, be able to describe the kinetics of enzymes, understand how enzymes and other proteins are regulated in various ways in the short term and long term and understand how the blood clotting cascade is an example of regulating proteins.
Describe the most common types of post-translational modification including phosphorylation and glycosylation, understand how the most common types of post-translational modification affect the activity of proteins, describe how insulin is an example of proteolytic cleavage, describe the two types of secretory pathways, understand the structure of collagen, describe the synthesis of collagen and the various post-translational modifications that occur in collagen synthesis, understand how deficiencies in certain molecules can lead to abnormalities in the structure of collagen.