Learn the processes of damage to the normal physiological functions and components of the human body, alongside the histology displayed in pathological cases.
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1. An Introduction to Pathology

Familiarise yourself with what pathology is and what a pathologist does.

2. The Basics of Pathology

Understand the causes of cell injury and death and its mechanisms, the microscopic morphology of cell injury, the difference between oncosis, necrosis, and apoptosis, pathological calcification and cellular aging and the reason behind it.

3. Epithelia, Skin, and Exocrine Glands

Become familiar with epithelial cells, their shapes and layering and understand the role of the skin, its structure and some of its pathologies.

4. Acute Inflammation

Understand the process of acute inflammation, from the stimulus to the resolution.

5.  Chronic Inflammation

Understand what causes chronic inflammation to arise, which cells are involved in chronic inflammation and some effects of chronic inflammation.

6. Regeneration and Repair of Tissues

Understand the processes involved in regeneration and repair of tissues, the factors influencing regeneration and repair, some conditions affecting collagen synthesis and some of the complications of fibrous repair.

7.  The Lymphatic System

Understand the anatomy and general function of the lymphatic system, alongside some of the conditions affecting the lymphatic system.

8. Haemostasis and Clotting

Understand the role of the vessel wall, platelets and the platelet plug, the coagulation system, the fibrinolytic system, and plasmin, the production of thrombin and fibrin, the role of thrombin inhibitors and when haemostasis is pathological.

9. Thrombosis and Embolism

Understand what can increase the likelihood of thrombosis occurring and infer which groups may be most at risk, appreciate the process by which thrombi are formed and familiarise yourself with the different types and methods of embolisation.

10. Atherosclerosis

Understand the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, understand complications of atherosclerosis, the clinical conditions caused by atherosclerosis and risk factors for atherosclerosis, with the measures taken to prevent it or intervene.

11. Cellular Adaptations

Recall the types of responses tissues can have when exposed to stimuli, and some examples of common stimuli.

12. Introduction to Neoplasia

Understand some features of neoplasms, compare features of benign and malignant neoplasms, understand the basic nomenclature of neoplasms, understand the difference between a carcinoma in-situ and an invasive carcinoma and appreciate the concept of tumour grading and staging.

13. Pathogenesis of Neoplasms

Understand the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on carcinogenesis, the actions of tumour suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes, what is meant by cancer progression and the Hallmarks of Cancer, and how they relate to carcinogenesis.

14. Behaviour of Neoplasms

Understand what is meant by invasion and metastasis, know the different routes of metastasis, understand systemic and local effects of tumours and understand what tumour markers are, and how they aid in monitoring tumour burden.

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