Learn the processes of damage to the normal physiological functions and components of the human body, alongside the histology displayed in pathological cases.
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1. An Introduction to Pathology

  • Familiarise yourself with what pathology is and what a pathologist does.
2. The Basics of Pathology
  • Understand the causes of cell injury and death and its mechanisms.
  • Understand the microscopic morphology of cell injury.
  • Understand the difference between oncosis, necrosis, and apoptosis.
  • Understand pathological calcification.
  • Understand cellular aging and the reason behind it.
3. Epithelia, Skin, and Exocrine Glands
  • Become familiar with epithelial cells, their shapes and layering
  • Understand the role of the skin, its structure and some of its pathologies.

4. Acute Inflammation

  • Understand the process of acute inflammation, from the stimulus to the resolution.

5.  Chronic Inflammation

  • Understand what causes chronic inflammation to arise.
  • Know which cells are involved in chronic inflammation and their roles.
  • Understand some effects of chronic inflammation.
6. Regeneration and Repair of Tissues
  • Understand the processes involved in regeneration and repair of tissues
  • Understand factors influencing regeneration and repair
  • Understand some conditions affecting collagen synthesis
  • Understand some complications of fibrous repair

7.  The Lymphatic System

  • Understand the anatomy and general function of the lymphatic system
  • Understand some conditions affecting the lymphatic system
8. Haemostasis and Clotting
  • Describe the principles of haemostasis and the critical steps in the clotting cascade including:
    • The role of the vessel wall, platelets and the platelet plug, the coagulation system, the fibrinolytic system, and plasmin
    • The production of thrombin and fibrin
    • The role of thrombin inhibitors
    • When haemostasis is pathological
9. Thrombosis and Embolism
  • Understand what can increase the likelihood of thrombosis occurring and infer which groups may be most at risk.
  • Appreciate the process by which thrombi are formed.
  • Familiarise yourself with the different types and methods of embolisation.
10. Atherosclerosis
  • Understand the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis
  • Understand complications of atherosclerosis
  • Understand clinical conditions caused by atherosclerosis
  • Understand risk factors for atherosclerosis, and measures take to prevent it or intervene
11. Cellular Adaptations
  • Recall the types of responses tissues can have when exposed to stimuli
  • Recall some examples of common stimuli
12. Introduction to Neoplasia
  • Understand some features of neoplasms
  • Compare features of benign and malignant neoplasms
  • Understand basic nomenclature of neoplasms
  • Understand the difference between a carcinoma in-situ and an invasive carcinoma
  • Understand the concept of tumour grading and staging
13. Pathogenesis of Neoplasms
  • Understand the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on carcinogenesis.
  • Understand the actions of tumour suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes.
  • Understand what is meant by cancer progression.
  • Understand the Hallmarks of Cancer, and how they relate to carcinogenesis.
14. Behaviour of Neoplasms
  • Understand what is meant by invasion and metastasis
  • Know the different routes of metastasis
  • Understand systemic and local effects of tumours
  • Understand what tumour markers are, and how they aid in monitoring tumour burden
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