Learn the roles of the kidneys, including their ability to manage blood pressure and filter for homeostasis, as well as some of the pathologies associated with the renal system.
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1. Anatomy of the Kidneys, Bladder and Urethra

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2. Development of the Urinary System

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3. The Nephron

  • Understand the role of the nephron within the kidney
  • Be aware of the anatomical segments of the nephron and each of their basic functions within the filtering process of the kidney

4. The Glomerulus – Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion

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5. Control of Plasma Volume

  • Understand the components of extracellular fluid and their effect on plasma concentrations and diffusion
  • Understand some of the mechanisms by which the kidneys help to regulate blood pressure
  • Be aware of the transporters within each section of the kidney nephron and their roles within homeostasis
  • Be aware of how these transporters can be targeted by drugs such as diuretics and how these can be used therapeutically

6. Control of Plasma Osmolarity

  • Understand how the body controls plasma osmolarity
  • Understand the role of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and ADH in the control of plasma osmolarity
  • Understand the effect of ADH on the collecting ducts of the kidney
  • Understand the medullary counter-current mechanism for sensitively controlling the reabsorption of water
  • Understand some of the things that can go wrong with controlling plasma osmolarity

7. Control of Potassium

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8. Micturition

  • Understand the phases of micturition (urination)
  • Understand the neural mechanisms that regulate these phases
  • Understand some of the pathophysiology that can affect micturition and why certain neurological conditions can present with urinary symptoms

9. Diuretics

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10. Glomerular Filtration Rate and the Measurement of Kidney Function

  • Understand what a Glomerular Filtratation Rate (GFR) is
  • Understand how this can be calculated for patients and its relevance
  • Understand the prupose of urinalysis
  • Be aware of urodynamic studies and what they involve

11. Hyponatraemia

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12. Urinary Incontinence

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13. Glomerular Disease

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14. Diabetic Nephropathy

  • Understand the pathophysiology of Diabetic Nephropathy
  • Understand how Diabetes can cause a nephrotic syndrome
  • Be aware of the signs and symptoms of Diabetic Nephropathy
  • Know the risk factors for developing Diabetic Nephropathy as a Diabetic

15. Acute Kidney Injury

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16. Chronic Kidney Disease

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17. Urinary Tract Obstruction

  • Understand the causes of urinary tract obstruction
  • Be aware of specific conditions and their pathophysiology that can cause urinary tract obstruction
  • Understand the different types of urinary retention and their presentations
  • Be aware of the complications of urinary retention and the surrounding syndromes

18. Urinary Tract Infections

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19. Prostate Pathology

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20. Male Urological Conditions

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21. Urological Malignancy

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The medical information on this site is provided as an information resource only, and is not to be used or relied on for any diagnostic or treatment purposes. This information is intended for medical education, specifically to biological/medical learning inclined individuals, and does not create any doctor-patient relationship, and should not be used as a substitute for professional diagnosis and treatment.